Chemical Constituents and Uses of Geranium Oil

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Source and Distribution of Geranium:

Geranium oil is obtained from the fresh leaves and stems of Pelargonium graveolens, belonging to the family Geraniaceae. The oil is obtained by steam distillation method. It is also known as Moroccan geranium oil and Algerian geranium oil.

Geranium is indigenous to South Africa. It is cultivated in Spain, France, Morocco, Algeria and Italy. Indian geranium oil is obtained from other species and that oil is known as Palmarosa oil.

Pelargonium graveolens (Geranium)

Pelargonium graveolens (Geranium) (Photo credit: John Poulakis)

Geranium oil is slightly yellowish coloured liquid with pleasant flavour. It is soluble in alcohol and insoluble in water.

Chemical constituents of Geranium:

Geranium contains fragrant volatile oil. It consists of two types of constituents like alcohols and esters. The alcohols are beta-citranellol and geraniol. The esters which are present in the oil are geranyl acetate, geranyl tiglate, citranellyl formate and citranellyl acetate. Other constituents like sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, sesquiterpene alcohol are present in the oil and are responsible for pleasant fragrance.

English: Pelargonium graveolens

English: Pelargonium graveolens (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Medicinal Uses and Health Benefits of Geranium:

  • Flavouring agent for creams, lotions, soaps
  • Used as flavouring agent for cosmetic products
  • Used in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages
  • Used for preparation in candies, puddings and other dairy products
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