Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) – Laboratory Diagnosis

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Symptoms of HIV and Diagnosis

HIV can be diagnosed in laboratory by two methods:

  • Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA):

This method is used to detect the HIV antibodies.
A positive EIA have to be confirmed by methods like Western blot technique or Immuno fluorescence Assay (IFA) for the detection of specific HIV proteins. p24 is the HIV core protein and is produced abundantly by the HIV. Other HIV proteins like p40, p55, gp41 and gp120 may also be analysed.

  • Measurement of CD4+ Lymphocytes and Viral Load:

These methods are not used to diagnose HIV infection.Viral load means the measurement of HIV RNA levels in the blood. These are the useful indexes of the disease progression. These also gives an account of the effectiveness of the anti-retroviral therapy.

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