Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers without the involvement of the nervous system.
Polymyositis is a chronic inflammatory myopathy. This condition is marked by symmetrical muscle weakness and pain, often accompanied by a rash around the eyes, face and limbs.
Evidence that polymyositis is an autoimmune disorder is growing stronger and some patients recover completely with immunosuppressive therapy.
A sample of plasma is tested for the presence of the antibodies that are found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
ESR measures the rate at which erythrocytes fall to the bottom of the test tube. Elevated sedimentation rates are associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.
A sample of blood is tested for the presence of the rheumatoid factor.
It is the measurement of the amount of the calcium in blood.
Creatine phosphokinase is an enzyme normally present in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Elevated serum CPK levels are found in muscular dystrophy myocardial infarction and skeletal muscle disorders.
Measurement of the amount of the phosphorus in a sample of serum.
This test measures the amount of uric acid in a sample of blood. High values are associated with gouty arthritis.
Surgical puncture of the joint space with a needle. Synovial fluid is removed for analysis.
Process of taking X-ray pictures of a joint after injection of opaque contrast material.
Surgical repair of a joint. Total hip arthroplasty is replacement of the femoral head and acetabulum with prostheses that are cemented into the bone.
Visual examination of the inside of the joint with an endoscope. Surgical instruments can be passed through the arthroscope to remove tissue and repair the joint. Arthroscopy is primarily used to visualize the knee, ankle and shoulder.
A radioactive phosphate substance is injected intravenously, and uptake of the substance in bone is measured by a special scanning device. Areas that take up excessive amounts of the radioactive substance may contain tumors, infection, inflammation or other destructive changes.
The process of recording the strength of muscle contraction as a result of electrical stimulation.
Removal of muscle tissue for microscopic examination.
Rays are passed through bones and a machine measures how well the rays can penetrate the bone. This is a test of bone density, and it is used to detect osteoporosis.