Testicular biopsy is a diagnostic surgical procedure done in azoospermic male individuals to find out whether there is sperm production or not in the testis. A small piece of testicular tissue is removed and sent to the laboratory in an isotonic medium to find spermatozoa in them.
Testicular biopsy is usually done under local anesthesia. sometimes it is done under general anesthesia also. The surgical procedure will be done by a urologist. After exposure of the testis 2-3 small pieces are cut and removed carefully. One piece is sent for histopathological examination. The remaining 2 pieces will be sent to the andrology lab in a small quantity of isotonic medium to study the presence of spermatozoa and to cryopreserve the biopsy material for use in ICSI procedures.
If the sperms are present in the testicular mass it will be confirmed that a block is present in the male reproductive tract obstructing the passage of sperms. In this positive result the individual will be advised to go in for assisted reproductive procedures and to cryopreserve the testicular tissue for future use. In some individuals the spermatogesis will be arrested at one stage or other. (Maturation arrest) Such individuals will be advised to go for donor semen if they want to have children.